Arctic Hare: classification,diet, behaviour and more

Arctic Hare
Arctic Hare

In the vast and frigid expanse of the Arctic tundra, a creature roams gracefully, blending in with the pristine white landscape. Meet the Arctic Hare, a fascinating animal that has adapted marvelously to its frozen habitat. In this article, we will delve into the world of this elegant creature, exploring its classification, appearance, behavior, diet, reproduction, and its intriguing relationship with humans. From its soft, white fur to its nimble movements across icy terrain, the Arctic Hare is a true marvel of nature.


The Arctic Hare belongs to the animal kingdom, specifically the class Mammalia. It is a member of the Leporidae family, which includes hares and rabbits. Its scientific name is Lepus arcticus, and it falls under the order Lagomorpha. These small mammals exhibit unique adaptations that enable them to thrive in the harsh Arctic environment.

Quick Facts

  • Fast and agile, the Arctic Hare can reach speeds of up to 40 miles per hour, allowing it to swiftly evade predators.
  • Their large, powerful hind legs aid in their mobility and agility on snow-covered terrain.
  • To maintain warmth, Arctic Hares huddle together in groups, taking advantage of each other’s body heat.
  • Their exquisite white fur during winter changes to a mottled brown and gray during the warmer months.
  • Contrary to popular belief, Arctic Hares do not hibernate; they remain active throughout the year.


The Arctic Hare boasts a striking appearance that perfectly suits its habitat. During the winter, its fur transforms into a brilliant white, camouflaging it against the snow. This adaptation helps it stay concealed from predators like the Arctic Fox and Polar Bear. In summer, the fur changes to a grayish-brown hue with some patches of white. Their large, sensitive ears serve to detect potential dangers in the vicinity, and their keen eyesight allows them to spot predators from a distance. The Arctic Hare has a compact, stout body, measuring around 43 to 70 centimeters in length, with females typically larger than males.

Distribution and Habitat

The Arctic Hare is primarily found in the Arctic regions of North America, Canada, Greenland, and certain parts of Europe. It favors open tundra habitats, where its ability to camouflage in the snow provides a significant advantage. These hares are most commonly spotted near the northern coasts, islands, and peninsulas where the harsh Arctic climate prevails. Their habitat is characterized by low temperatures, strong winds, and long periods of snow cover. Despite the challenging conditions, the Arctic Hare has evolved exceptional adaptations to thrive in this icy realm.

Biology of the Arctic Hare

The Arctic Hare’s physiology is uniquely adapted to the extreme cold. Their compact bodies minimize heat loss, and they have a thick layer of blubber beneath their skin, providing insulation. Additionally, their fur is not only dense but also hollow, trapping air and further preventing heat from escaping. These adaptations allow them to survive in temperatures as low as minus 50 degrees Celsius. The Arctic Hare’s metabolism also adjusts with the changing seasons, enabling it to efficiently utilize available food sources and store fat during the short summer months when food is abundant.


The Arctic Hare is a highly social and active creature. During the summer, they congregate in large groups, offering safety in numbers against potential predators. However, as winter approaches, they become more solitary and territorial. To conserve energy, they limit their movements and feed on moss, lichen, and other available plant material. Their agility and speed come into play when they sense danger, allowing them to quickly escape from predators. Migratory behavior is common among Arctic Hares, especially those residing in areas where seasonal food availability varies.


The Arctic Hare is primarily a herbivore, feeding on a wide range of plant material. In the summer, their diet includes grasses, sedges, willow leaves, and various flowering plants. As winter sets in and vegetation becomes scarce, they rely on woody shrubs, mosses, and lichen to sustain themselves. Their remarkable ability to extract nutrients from these tough and fibrous plants is essential for their survival during the long, harsh winter months. Their excellent sense of smell helps them locate food buried beneath the snow.

Arctic Hare Life Span

The life span of an Arctic Hare typically ranges from 1 to 5 years, although some individuals may live longer in captivity. The harsh living conditions, combined with the constant threat of predation, contribute to the relatively short life expectancy of these resilient creatures.

Arctic Hare Reproduction

The mating season for Arctic Hares usually occurs in the spring or early summer when the temperatures are slightly more bearable. During this time, males engage in aggressive behaviors to compete for the attention of females. After a successful courtship, females give birth to a litter of leverets (young hares) in a shallow nest, often dug into the ground and lined with fur. The leverets are born with their eyes open and a coat of fur, ready to explore the world alongside their protective mother. The females exhibit remarkable maternal care, ensuring the survival of their offspring amidst the harsh conditions of the Arctic.

Arctic Hare Relationship with Humans

The Arctic Hare has had a historical association with humans, particularly indigenous Arctic communities. In the past, their fur was valuable for clothing and trade. However, with modern conservation efforts, hunting of Arctic Hares is regulated to protect their population and maintain ecological balance. Today, these elegant creatures continue to captivate wildlife enthusiasts and researchers, providing valuable insights into the marvels of Arctic adaptation.

Arctic Hare Predators

The Arctic Hare faces several natural predators, including the Arctic Fox, Polar Bear, Snowy Owl, and Wolverines. Their ability to sprint at impressive speeds and blend into the snowy landscape serves as their primary defense mechanism against these formidable hunters.


Arctic Hare Conclusion

In Conclusion, the Arctic Hare stands as a remarkable testament to the wonders of adaptation and survival in the harshest of environments. With its stunning white coat, agility, and keen instincts, it navigates the Arctic landscape with finesse and grace.

Throughout the year, the Arctic Hare faces a multitude of challenges, from scarcity of food in the winter to the constant presence of natural predators. Yet, its unique adaptations have allowed it to flourish in one of the most extreme habitats on Earth. The ability to change fur color with the seasons provides an excellent example of its remarkable evolutionary strategies, ensuring its survival against predators and maintaining its place in the Arctic food web.

Although climate change poses a threat to their habitat and survival, conservation efforts have been put in place to protect these captivating creatures. Collaboration between researchers, indigenous communities, and environmental organizations aims to safeguard the Arctic Hare and its fragile ecosystem for generations to come.

As we continue to learn more about this magnificent animal, our appreciation for its resilience and elegance deepens. The Arctic Hare serves as a symbol of the delicate balance of nature and the importance of protecting our planet’s diverse wildlife.

Through understanding and admiration of these incredible creatures, we are inspired to take action in preserving their icy home and safeguarding the Arctic biodiversity as a whole.


Are Arctic Hares really white?

Yes, during winter, their fur turns white to blend with the snowy environment, providing them with excellent camouflage.

Do Arctic Hares migrate?

Yes, many Arctic Hares migrate seasonally to find food and better living conditions.

How fast can Arctic Hares run?

They can reach speeds of up to 40 miles per hour.

Are Arctic Hares endangered?

While their populations are stable, conservation efforts are in place to protect these creatures and their fragile Arctic habitat

What is the main threat to Arctic Hares?

Climate change poses a significant threat to the Arctic Hare’s habitat and food availability.

How do Arctic Hares stay warm in extreme cold?

Their dense fur, blubber layer, and low metabolic rate help them retain heat.

Do Arctic Hares hibernate?

No, they remain active throughout the year, foraging for food even in winter.

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